my.cnf読み込み順 
※my.cnfの読み込み順は、バージョンによって異なるようです。
同じ設定が複数のファイルに記述されていた場合は後から読まれた
設定によって上書きされます。

MYSQL4.1まで
1. /etc/my.cnf
2. データディレクトリ/my.cnf
3. –defaults-extra-file=オプションに指定されたファイル
4. ~/.my.cnf

MYSQL5.0から
1. /etc/my.cnf
2. $MYSQL_HOME環境変数に指定されるディレクトリにあるmy.cnf
3. –defaults-extra-file=オプションに指定されたファイル
4. ~/.my.cnf
5. ./configure –sysconfdir=で指定されるディレクトリーにあるmy.cnf

■ –sysconfdir=は、5.0.21から追加された検索パスなので、バージョンが
 低いMYSQLに関しては無効になります。

■Windows版のMYSQLの設定ファイルの読み込み順はまた別になります。

mysql Ver 14.14 Distrib 5.1.30, for pc-linux-gnu (i686) using readline 5.1
Copyright 2000-2008 MySQL AB, 2008 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
This software comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. This is free software,
and you are welcome to modify and redistribute it under the GPL license

Default options are read from the following files in the given order:
/etc/my.cnf /etc/mysql/my.cnf /usr/local/mysql/etc/my.cnf ~/.my.cnf
The following groups are read: mysql client
The following options may be given as the first argument:
–print-defaults Print the program argument list and exit
–no-defaults Don’t read default options from any options file
–defaults-file=# Only read default options from the given file #
–defaults-extra-file=# Read this file after the global files are read


バッチ処理結果をカスタマイズする。

–html HTMLフォーマット出力 (-H)
–xml XMLフォーマット出力 (-X)
–verbose 詳細表示(-v , -vv, -vvv) (-v)
–table TABLE形式で出力 (-t)
–skip-column-names カラムを表示しない (-N)
–columun-names カラムを表示
–execute=name 指定したクエリーを実行する (-e)
–force エラーを無視して続行 (-f)

[root@colinux ~]# ls
backupfiles mysql–help.txt select_batch1.sql
[root@colinux ~]# mysql test < select_batch1.sql -p --html > select_batch1.html
Enter password:
[root@colinux ~]# cat select_batch1.html

< TD>SHOW WARIN
idnamecomment
1test update
2SHOW WARIN
22222222222
3select_limtest 20090117
4select_limtest 20090117
5s
elect_lim
test 20090117
6select_limte
st 20090117
7select_limtest 20090117
8select_limtest 20090117
9s
elect_lim
test 20090117

[root@colinux ~]#

[root@colinux ~]# mysql test < select_batch1.sql -p --table > select_batch1.txt
Enter password:
[root@colinux ~]# cat select_batch1.txt
+—-+————+—————+
| id | name | comment |
+—-+————+—————+
| 1 | SHOW WARIN | test update |
| 2 | SHOW WARIN | 22222222222 |
| 3 | select_lim | test 20090117 |
| 4 | select_lim | test 20090117 |
| 5 | select_lim | test 20090117 |
| 6 | select_lim | test 20090117 |
| 7 | select_lim | test 20090117 |
| 8 | select_lim | test 20090117 |
| 9 | select_lim | test 20090117 |
+—-+————+—————+
[root@colinux ~]#

[root@colinux ~]# mysql test < select_batch1.sql -p -vvv Enter password: -------------- select * from test.T1 -------------- +----+------------+---------------+ | id | name | comment | +----+------------+---------------+ | 1 | SHOW WARIN | test update | | 2 | SHOW WARIN | 22222222222 | | 3 | select_lim | test 20090117 | | 4 | select_lim | test 20090117 | | 5 | select_lim | test 20090117 | | 6 | select_lim | test 20090117 | | 7 | select_lim | test 20090117 | | 8 | select_lim | test 20090117 | | 9 | select_lim | test 20090117 | +----+------------+---------------+ 9 rows in set (0.00 sec) Bye [root@colinux ~]# [root@colinux ~]# mysql test < select_batch1.sql -p --skip-column-names Enter password: 1 SHOW WARIN test update 2 SHOW WARIN 22222222222 3 select_lim test 20090117 4 select_lim test 20090117 5 select_lim test 20090117 6 select_lim test 20090117 7 select_lim test 20090117 8 select_lim test 20090117 9 select_lim test 20090117 [root@colinux ~]# ■HTMLフォーマット batch_html

■テーブルフォーマット
batch_table_format

■Colums無し (他のバッチ連携などに便利)
batch_no_colum


MYSQL接続時にプロンプトを変更して自分の接続を状態を把握。

通常接続

[root@colinux mysql5130]# mysql -u root -p
Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 1
Server version: 5.1.30 MySQL Community Server (GPL)
Type ‘help;’ or ‘\h’ for help. Type ‘\c’ to clear the buffer.
mysql>

PROMPTを変更して接続状態をわかり易くした場合

[root@colinux mysql5130]# mysql -u root -p –prompt=”\u@\h-DB:\d>”
Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 3
Server version: 5.1.30 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Type ‘help;’ or ‘\h’ for help. Type ‘\c’ to clear the buffer.

root@localhost-DB:(none)>use test
Database changed
root@localhost-DB:test>

MYSQL PROMPT

MYSQL PROMPT


クライアント情報確認

MYSQLコマンドに –helpを付与して実行するとすべて表示しますが

情報が多いので以下のようにオプションを付けて必要な情報のみ表示。

バージョン情報

[root@colinux bin]# ./mysql –version
./mysql  Ver 14.14 Distrib 5.1.30, for pc-linux-gnu (i686) using readline 5.1
[root@colinux bin]#

接続オプション

ユーザー名指定: -u

パスワード指定:  -p

接続ホスト指定: -h

接続ポート指定: -P

データベース指定: -D

文字コード指定: –default-character-set=name

エラー音を鳴らさない: -b

クエリーワーニング表示: –show-warnings

セパレーターをTABにする: -s

操作をファイルに記録する: –tee=ファイル名

–teeを無効にする: –no-tee

プロンプト変更: –prompt=プロンプト名

※ /etc/profileに以下のパス設定をしておけば何処からでもコマンド実行できます。

export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/mysql/bin

MYSQLインストール後にディフォルト文字をUTF-8に設定

/etc/my.cnfを開き以下のように文字コードを設定する。

あとで直すのは面倒なので最初に設定しておくのが良いかと思います。

[mysqld]
default-character-set=utf8
#skip-character-set-client-handshake

━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━

設定後にMYSQLを再起動して文字コードを反映させる。

━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━

■mysqlコマンドにて確認

[root@colinux ~]# ./mysql –help

./mysql  Ver 14.14 Distrib 5.1.30, for pc-linux-gnu (i686) using readline 5.1
Copyright 2000-2008 MySQL AB, 2008 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
This software comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. This is free software,
and you are welcome to modify and redistribute it under the GPL license
Usage: ./mysql [OPTIONS] [database]
-?, –help          Display this help and exit.
-I, –help          Synonym for -?
–auto-rehash       Enable automatic rehashing. One doesn’t need to use
‘rehash’ to get table and field completion, but startup
and reconnecting may take a longer time. Disable with
–disable-auto-rehash.
-A, –no-auto-rehash
No automatic rehashing. One has to use ‘rehash’ to get
table and field completion. This gives a quicker start of
mysql and disables rehashing on reconnect. WARNING:
options deprecated; use –disable-auto-rehash instead.
-B, –batch         Don’t use history file. Disable interactive behavior.
(Enables –silent)
–character-sets-dir=name
Directory where character sets are.
–column-type-info  Display column type information.
-c, –comments      Preserve comments. Send comments to the server. The
default is –skip-comments (discard comments), enable
with –comments
-C, –compress      Use compression in server/client protocol.
-#, –debug[=#]     This is a non-debug version. Catch this and exit
–debug-check       Check memory and open file usage at exit .
-T, –debug-info    Print some debug info at exit.
-D, –database=name Database to use.
–default-character-set=name
Set the default character set.
–delimiter=name    Delimiter to be used.
-e, –execute=name  Execute command and quit. (Disables –force and history
file)
-E, –vertical      Print the output of a query (rows) vertically.
-f, –force         Continue even if we get an sql error.
-G, –named-commands
Enable named commands. Named commands mean this program’s
internal commands; see mysql> help . When enabled, the
named commands can be used from any line of the query,
otherwise only from the first line, before an enter.
Disable with –disable-named-commands. This option is
disabled by default.
-g, –no-named-commands
Named commands are disabled. Use \* form only, or use
named commands only in the beginning of a line ending
with a semicolon (;) Since version 10.9 the client now
starts with this option ENABLED by default! Disable with
‘-G’. Long format commands still work from the first
line. WARNING: option deprecated; use
–disable-named-commands instead.
-i, –ignore-spaces Ignore space after function names.
–local-infile      Enable/disable LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE.
-b, –no-beep       Turn off beep on error.
-h, –host=name     Connect to host.
-H, –html          Produce HTML output.
-X, –xml           Produce XML output
–line-numbers      Write line numbers for errors.
-L, –skip-line-numbers
Don’t write line number for errors. WARNING: -L is
deprecated, use long version of this option instead.
-n, –unbuffered    Flush buffer after each query.
–column-names      Write column names in results.
-N, –skip-column-names
Don’t write column names in results. WARNING: -N is
deprecated, use long version of this options instead.
-O, –set-variable=name
Change the value of a variable. Please note that this
option is deprecated; you can set variables directly with
–variable-name=value.
–sigint-ignore     Ignore SIGINT (CTRL-C)
-o, –one-database  Only update the default database. This is useful for
skipping updates to other database in the update log.
–pager[=name]      Pager to use to display results. If you don’t supply an
option the default pager is taken from your ENV variable
PAGER. Valid pagers are less, more, cat [> filename],
etc. See interactive help (\h) also. This option does not
work in batch mode. Disable with –disable-pager. This
option is disabled by default.
–no-pager          Disable pager and print to stdout. See interactive help
(\h) also. WARNING: option deprecated; use
–disable-pager instead.
-p, –password[=name]
Password to use when connecting to server. If password is
not given it’s asked from the tty.
-P, –port=#        Port number to use for connection or 0 for default to, in
order of preference, my.cnf, $MYSQL_TCP_PORT,
/etc/services, built-in default (3306).
–prompt=name       Set the mysql prompt to this value.
–protocol=name     The protocol of connection (tcp,socket,pipe,memory).
-q, –quick         Don’t cache result, print it row by row. This may slow
down the server if the output is suspended. Doesn’t use
history file.
-r, –raw           Write fields without conversion. Used with –batch.
–reconnect         Reconnect if the connection is lost. Disable with
–disable-reconnect. This option is enabled by default.
-s, –silent        Be more silent. Print results with a tab as separator,
each row on new line.
-S, –socket=name   Socket file to use for connection.
-t, –table         Output in table format.
–tee=name          Append everything into outfile. See interactive help (\h)
also. Does not work in batch mode. Disable with
–disable-tee. This option is disabled by default.
–no-tee            Disable outfile. See interactive help (\h) also. WARNING:
option deprecated; use –disable-tee instead
-u, –user=name     User for login if not current user.
-U, –safe-updates  Only allow UPDATE and DELETE that uses keys.
-U, –i-am-a-dummy  Synonym for option –safe-updates, -U.
-v, –verbose       Write more. (-v -v -v gives the table output format).
-V, –version       Output version information and exit.
-w, –wait          Wait and retry if connection is down.
–connect_timeout=# Number of seconds before connection timeout.
–max_allowed_packet=#
Max packet length to send to, or receive from server
–net_buffer_length=#
Buffer for TCP/IP and socket communication
–select_limit=#    Automatic limit for SELECT when using –safe-updates
–max_join_size=#   Automatic limit for rows in a join when using
–safe-updates
–secure-auth       Refuse client connecting to server if it uses old
(pre-4.1.1) protocol
–server-arg=name   Send embedded server this as a parameter.
–show-warnings     Show warnings after every statement.

Default options are read from the following files in the given order:
/etc/my.cnf /etc/mysql/my.cnf /usr/local/mysql/etc/my.cnf ~/.my.cnf
The following groups are read: mysql client
The following options may be given as the first argument:
–print-defaults    Print the program argument list and exit
–no-defaults        Don’t read default options from any options file
–defaults-file=#    Only read default options from the given file #
–defaults-extra-file=# Read this file after the global files are read

Variables (–variable-name=value)
and boolean options {FALSE|TRUE}  Value (after reading options)
——————————— —————————–
auto-rehash                       FALSE
character-sets-dir                (No default value)
column-type-info                  FALSE
comments                          FALSE
compress                          FALSE
debug-check                       FALSE
debug-info                        FALSE
database                          (No default value)
default-character-set             utf8
delimiter                         ;
vertical                          FALSE
force                             FALSE
named-commands                    FALSE
local-infile                      FALSE
no-beep                           FALSE
host                              (No default value)
html                              FALSE
xml                               FALSE
line-numbers                      TRUE
unbuffered                        FALSE
column-names                      TRUE
sigint-ignore                     FALSE
port                              3306
prompt                            mysql>
quick                             FALSE
raw                               FALSE
reconnect                         TRUE
socket                            /tmp/mysql.sock
table                             FALSE
user                              (No default value)
safe-updates                      FALSE
i-am-a-dummy                      FALSE
connect_timeout                   0
max_allowed_packet                16777216
net_buffer_length                 16384
select_limit                      1000
max_join_size                     1000000
secure-auth                       FALSE
show-warnings                     FALSE

■ MYSQLにログインしてコマンドで確認。

mysql> show variables like ‘%chara%’;
+————————–+————————————–+
| Variable_name            | Value                                |
+————————–+————————————–+
| character_set_client     | utf8                                 |
| character_set_connection | utf8                                 |
| character_set_database   | utf8                                 |
| character_set_filesystem | binary                               |
| character_set_results    | utf8                                 |
| character_set_server     | utf8                                 |
| character_set_system     | utf8                                 |
| character_sets_dir       | /usr/local/mysql5130/share/charsets/ |
+————————–+————————————–+
8 rows in set (0.02 sec)

mysql>

mysql_c2


STEP1) レプリケーション用ユーザの作成 ━ セグメントを指定してReplicationユーザーを作成

mysql> GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO replication@’192.168.11.0/255.255.255.0′ IDENTIFIED BY ‘rePlicaTion’;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> use mysql
Database changed
mysql> select user,host,password from user where user = ‘replication’;
+————-+—————————-+——————————————-+
| user        | host                       | password                                  |
+————-+—————————-+——————————————-+
| replication | 192.168.11.0/255.255.255.0 | *B3484EFDD867D04EDCF7CBA08D9554BA5E8FE684 |
+————-+—————————-+——————————————-+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

STEP2) マスタのデータをスレーブにコピー ━ 整合性を保つ為にまずはMY SQLサービスを停止

[root@desktop ~]# /etc/init.d/mysql.server stop
Shutting down MySQL.                                       [  OK  ]

停止後にtarでまとめる, tar cpf /var/tmp/mysql.tar /usr/local/mysql

[root@desktop data]# scp For_repli.tar admin@192.168.11.4:/home/admin/For_repli.tar
admin@192.168.11.4’s password:
For_repli.tar                                                                                            100%   20KB  20.0KB/s   00:00
[root@desktop data]#

3) Slaveのデータを入れ替える (Slave停止)

[root@notepc local]# /etc/init.d/mysql.server stop

※マスターで取得してスレーブにコピーしたファイルを,/usr/local/mysqlに展開

4) マスタの設定
バイナリログとserver-idの設定のため, マスタの/etc/my.cnfに追加します。

[mysqld]
log-bin
server-id=1

5) マスター設定確認
[root@desktop local]# /etc/init.d/mysql.server start
Starting MySQL..                                           [  OK  ]
[root@desktop data]# ls -l
合計 28820
drwx—— 2 mysql mysql     4096  5月 24 14:44 RPLI
-rw-rw—- 1 mysql mysql      117  5月 24 15:18 desktop-bin.000001
-rw-rw—- 1 mysql mysql       98  5月 24 15:38 desktop-bin.000002
-rw-rw—- 1 mysql mysql       82  5月 24 15:38 desktop-bin.index
-rw-rw—- 1 mysql mysql        5  5月 24 15:38 desktop.localdomain.pid
-rw-rw—- 1 mysql mysql  5242880  5月 24 15:38 ib_logfile0
-rw-rw—- 1 mysql mysql  5242880  5月 11 00:20 ib_logfile1
-rw-rw—- 1 mysql mysql 18874368  5月 24 15:18 ibdata1
drwxr-x— 2 mysql root      4096  5月 11 00:38 mysql

 

mysql> show master status;
+——————–+———-+————–+——————+
| File               | Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB |
+——————–+———-+————–+——————+
| desktop-bin.000001 |       98 |              |                  |
+——————–+———-+————–+——————+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql>

 

mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE ‘server\_id’;
+—————+——-+
| Variable_name | Value |
+—————+——-+
| server_id     | 1     |
+—————+——-+
1 row in set (0.02 sec)

mysql>

━━━━━━━ ここでマスターの設定は終了 ━━━━━━━━━

6) slaveのmy.cnf変更してmysqlを開始

########## Replication Slave設定 #############
server-id=2
master-host=192.168.11.5
master-user=replication
master-password=rePlicaTion

[root@notepc local]# /etc/init.d/mysql.server start

 

mysql> show slave status\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
             Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event
                Master_Host: 192.168.11.5
                Master_User: replication
                Master_Port: 3306
              Connect_Retry: 60
            Master_Log_File: desktop-bin.000001
        Read_Master_Log_Pos: 98
             Relay_Log_File: notepc-relay-bin.000002
              Relay_Log_Pos: 237
      Relay_Master_Log_File: desktop-bin.000001
           Slave_IO_Running: Yes
          Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
            Replicate_Do_DB:
        Replicate_Ignore_DB:
         Replicate_Do_Table:
     Replicate_Ignore_Table:
    Replicate_Wild_Do_Table:
Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table:
                 Last_Errno: 0
                 Last_Error:
               Skip_Counter: 0
        Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 98
            Relay_Log_Space: 237
            Until_Condition: None
             Until_Log_File:
              Until_Log_Pos: 0
         Master_SSL_Allowed: No
         Master_SSL_CA_File:
         Master_SSL_CA_Path:
            Master_SSL_Cert:
          Master_SSL_Cipher:
             Master_SSL_Key:
      Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

ERROR:
No query specified

mysql>

 

7) マスターのデータ更新をしたら,SLAVEにデータが反映されるか確認。

insert into name_book(firstname,lastname,comment) values(‘鈴木’,’啓太郎’,’レプリケーション確認’);
insert into name_book(firstname,lastname,comment) values(‘斉藤’,’あどみん’,’レプリケーション確認済み’);

mysql> select * from name_book;
+———–+————–+————————————–+
| firstname | lastname     | comment                              |
+———–+————–+————————————–+
| 山田      | 太郎         | HELLO WORLD                          |
| 鈴木      | 啓太郎       | レプリケーション確認                 |
| 斉藤      | あどみん     | レプリケーション確認済み             |
+———–+————–+————————————–+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

 

━━━━━━━━━━━━ 青(MASTER)   /   黒(SLAVE) ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 

■データを新規でインサートする前の状態を確認。(既存のデータ1件はコピーが問題なくされている)

replication_1.jpg

 

■ MasterにてデータのINSERTしてSlaveにてデータの同期確認。

replication_2.jpg

 

■再度確認して完了。

replication_3.jpg